User-Centered Interface Design : Designing for Usability



I made a design for an app called Toilet. To make use of the technology this app is designed.  I used Balsamiq wireframe to design the mid fidelity of app to know what can be improved in app and its features. Later, using the concept applied to Balsamiq wireframe I designed high fidelity wireframe in Adobe XD. Everything was taken in consideration like App there, fonts, features and community to help people through app. Prototype was made to simulate real app like mobile environment.

Whole purpose of building app is to provide people facility with ease. Modern problem needs modern solution. It removes hassle of asking someone for help. 

Here this app provides information of toilet. User of this app can see the location of toilet and know if the toilet is paid or free. This app is also telling if disable has facility in toilet or not.

People can view their timeline and they can also download offline maps as they wish. Main value from this app is that they can get information from this app and also contribute to app which again benefits user.


I like to travel for photography. In many cases I felt very difficult to ask someone where the toilet is. So, I was thinking if there was any app for our country to be specific. I luckily found one app “Any Time Toilet “. Soon that happiness turned off. I found that app incomplete. Data of toilet were very less. And so, the design of app, we couldn’t take a direction to the nearest toilet.

Offline maps could come handy but there was no option.

I learned Adobe XD to design the usability of that app from ground level. UI design was simple but to make UX it was quite time consuming and tough.

This app has importance of its own. This app can help Nepal in “Khulla disha pisab mukta”. It can come in handy to many people with various age group. It is importance for Sociable, outgoing people who follow travels and trends. The app uses location from the mobile device using GPS and helps to find the toilet nearby.

I used the usability method to make new upgrade possible. User testing was done on this prototype. Search were added in order to find toilet and its location. You can easily have this app simply by going to Appstore and installing it.

The final output of this app is great. User can find toilet and its details. User can also save their money if they can find free toilet nearby. They can use location or search feature. They can tract their activities. They can contribute to the community which will benefit them. People can actually rate and review the toilet. This app is can also be used as accessibility. There were lots of feature missing in the original app. This prototype can be the science of making technology work for people. On the basics of learnability, user can access important data at first and other at few or less taps. This app is designed in the sense of efficiency, usability and satisfaction in mind.


Toilet app can come handy to all the people of Nepal. We can find the nearest toilet with details. Once downloaded offline maps toilet app can run offline only requires GPS to be turned on. App is designed to complete task in few clicks. This app can be useful to various age group. This app can also come handy for disabled people. This app was basically created to increase our self-esteem. Many people find difficult to approach other person to ask and only to listen no we don’t have toilet or I don’t know.

So, this could address the problem of modern society and impact the old ways of awkwardness. User now can know if the toilet is paid of not, even when they are not nearby toilet. Download offline maps were not available in ANY TIME TOILET app so, its was added to address problem. User have can also contribute by adding, rating and reviewing toilet, which will directly benefit others.

3.1 Problem space

Here idea is that if user enters data which will populate on explore tab and if others enter toilet data then it appears in individual user and can be benefited. Which is win-win situation for everyone. It should be lot easier to find toilet.

The app standard was taken to consideration. Suitable color palate theme was chosen with font.  Lots of feature were recommended and were tested and examined later. Critical evaluation of an object was carried out.

This app does some basic stuff to users like previewing toilet on maps and also in list view. User can preview their contribution through app. They can get their points

App theme is chosen for UCD. Font were used like normal ones but with little tweaked ones like ‘nexa’ font. And app animation to make impression on users. Shows cool animation on refresh/ reload.


4.1 UCD

UCD (User-centered design) is mainly about designing user friendly interactive technologies to meet potential users needs or demand. An optimistic approach to invent new solutions are User-centered design. UCD different stages are establishing requirements, understanding user needs, evaluating designs, prototyping alternative designs, etc. System that were used for app and designed were considered to design/ build something beautiful and useful. It can improve productivity, reduce human error.

Understanding the user needs data were gathered by user research method. By observation, interview, questionnaires, focus groups, participant analysis data gathering techniques were applied. While developing any project there are methods used for the goal of the project, in this project research method is used. It can help in build a new product, fact validation and solving problem. Asking user question or task to perform, gathering information and developing as UCD.

Story board can be any visual representation of sequence of story or film and break down of any sequence of action into individual frame. It can be from drawing of pen and paper or digital drawing with direction and dialogues to unfold the story.



5.1 Formative study on Toilet app was done by PACT Analysis:


To all individual who will be user of new toilet app:

•             users will be in the age around 12 to late 40’s.

•             travelling people who follow travels, trends and are more sociable,

•             Traveler or normal people.

All targeted users of above ages would already have the level of skill to use this app, as this app is similar to almost all apps in Appstore. All targeted audience know where they are going or travelling and they are motivated. I see my audience as a healthy people who are always on the go with fast life styles.


This app will be used for short period of time. People will use to navigate to near toilet. They can also see their activities in their timeline. User can still use app to know more about same place with more description. Target people can make their collection to share it or to keep it for themselves. The app will have responsive layout so that user will be able to view all content on different screen size. There should not be any latency in app as the user wants quick updates with less data consumed. User will be able to download for offline use.


App is designed to use anywhere at any location. It can be used at home or on the go. To find the nearest toilet you may use Wi-Fi or need a cellular connection. As the app lets user to choose username and password of their choice which adds security to the app and user’s data. The timeline section of user will be private. User can download offline maps while in Wi-Fi to use it later.


Toilet app will not be easy wasting on the battery or consuming more battery it will access data and location while on the app, After the application is closed or in background it will use nearly zero power and data. The design of the toilet app makes it easy for usability and the look and feel of the toilet app is simple and productive. The application will be smooth and reliable to the user, by this giving an excellent experience to them. User that wants to use this app can easily download from play store or Appstore on their mobile devices.

5.2. HTA

HTA stands for Hierarchical Task Analysis. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) is a widely used type of Task analysis where a high-level task is decomposed into a hierarchy of subtasks. An HTA is sometimes referred to as a hierarchical decomposition. When designing a new system, hierarchical task analysis lets you explore various possible approaches to completing the same task. When analyzing an existing system, it can help you to optimize particular interactions.  (Hierarchical Task Analysis, 2020)

0. Using Toilet App

   1. Get your own location         

   2. Search toilet

   3. Select toilet from the list    

               3.1 Get direction of toilet

               3.2 Check toilet status paid or free

               3.3 Check if it is available for disable people

               3.4 Rate and then Review the toilet

               3.5 See rating and Read reviews

   4. View used toilet history

               4.1 Sorted by recently

               4.2 Sort by most visited

  5. check offline maps

               5.1 click download on any state map to be downloaded

               5.2 Refresh to check map availability or expiry

5.3 Turn on auto update to automatically update offline maps on background

5.4 Turn on download over cellular data

plan 0: do 1 if you need your location, do 1 and go to 3, if you cannot get location then to find the toilet

do 2 and go to 3

Plan to download offline maps on cellular data

Do 5 go to offline maps tab, do 5.1, 5.2 and 5.4.

HTA using toilet app

5.3 Story boarding

Story Board


A software is tested using technique in which a certain part of all part is repeatedly tested to ensure that the app or website is correctly placed or tested or not. Gorilla Testing is suitable for this method for thoroughly examine prototype. Five users were taken for usability testing. Mobile prototype was used for testing. App technology were tested and so the app design. Both qualitative and quantitate data was captured. An approach to recurring guide testing procedure is taken.  We can clearly see that we can developed an android app first. Gorilla testing can be helpful cause it is neither unique nor performed without preparation.

User can have onboarding experience which can say about this app in slides.
Also gives user beautiful prompt on location access.
App let you know activity logs based on location history and searches.
Maps can be downloaded for offline uses.
Location of toilet can be shared and saved in collection.
User can contribute in this app, which is presented with animations.
User must feel secure with their data.
signup page can take username field for easy login.
Email verification process is added for security purposes.
Cool animation in introduced for user patience while verifying.
user can login or User can easily sign up with other services too.
After login in user will not have to go through onboarding and login process again. Explore tab prompts, while app searching its location.
User can search now and find list view of toilet.
user can preview detail view on any list click
On timeline tab we can see recently visited history and share it or clear it left swipe.
Rate it with right swipe and filter it by recently or most visited.
We can download maps for offline uses.
User can reload to check any updates.
We can see the save tab which helps to save toilet in collection and share or unshare.
User A can follow user B collection. user A or user B can further share this collection to user C.
We can create new collection.
Contribution tab was added for growth of community which indirectly helps users.
user can drag on map to add exact position of toilet.
User can provide details which is verified and later populated in map.


Methodology is best way to evaluate prototype for usability testing. In this prototype Gorilla testing is done since it doesn’t require sum of money and does not require specific research skills. It can be used as a demonstration the value of research and user testing.

After completion of first prototype usability test should be performed. We need users to perform usability testing. Usability test consent form were made so that user participating in testing can know what’s the drill. After user consent form was signed users were asked to perform task listed below.

A. Task

  1. Can you show me how to register using email?
  2. Can you show me how you find the nearest toilet?
  3. Show me details of nearest toilet?
  4. Share the nearest toilet.
  5. Save nearest toilet to your collection.
  6. Show me your most visited toilet?
  7. How do you upload display image?
  8. Show me how to add a toilet?
  9. Download offline maps of state 1?
  10. Create new collection.
  11. Finally, can you show how to logout?

B. Look and feel

  • Do you like theme of app?
  • Is this well-organized?
  • Is this app complex to use?
  • Do you think you need technical person to run this app?
  • Do we need app onboarding?

6.3 First usability test: data capture sheet

The researcher should fill in:

6.4 Satisfaction

The app was pleasant to use (please tick as appropriate)

Look and feel

  1. Do you like theme of app?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Is this well-organized?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Is this app complex to use?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Do you think you need technical person to run this app?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Do we need app onboarding?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
Bar chart showing Satisfaction after usability testing of prototype 1.

6.5 Requirements for user evaluation of first prototype

Tester marked word

1st tester performed well; he was confused on direction button as share button.

2nd user thinks it is very important to have onboarding to an app. She finds it hard to figure out to perform certain task and then later could do any task due to learnability. She wanted to see further process in contribution.

3rd tester performed all task with excellency and finds theme of app very pleasant. He would like to add automatically updating offline maps on background.

4th tester took time to figure out detail view of nearest toilet.  He found difficult to unfollow the saved collection which was already followed.

5th tester finds app is easy to use in few clicks and says people will finds app complexity will decrease as more the user gets using it.


Further walkthrough of contribution
user can also further share the collection. User can now easily unfollow.
user can toggle auto update and forget the Hassel to always check update. user can also download over mobile network

After completion of first prototype usability test were performed. We found users to perform usability testing. Usability test consent form were given so that user participating in testing can know what’s the drill. After user consent form was signed users were asked to perform task in which user found lots of interesting things in the app related to ideas and well app designed. There were also something that user found missing or hard to use. User needed more on contributions so that it could be guided path to earn point. Tester found one critical function was missing in which user has to update maps manually time to time which can be done easily with automatic updates turned on.

There were lots of thought too be added to prototype. Second prototypes was made putting some idea and ease in mind. Share sheets were designed, Automatic updates were made available with simple toogle. Now user can also download maps on cellular network. Guided contribution were added later for user ease. There is now option to unfollow the following collection. User can also further share followed collection. These all above feature were added by which all requirement were addressed. Both qualitative and quantative data were captured in testing.


After completion of second prototype usability test should be performed. We need same users to perform usability testing. Since usability test consent form were made so that user participating in testing can knew what’s the drill. Tester were asked to perform task listed below.

A. Task

  1. Can you show me how to download using mobile network?
  2. Can you show me how to turn on auto update?
  3. Show me how you can further share followed collection?
  4. Unfollow collection of top.
  5. Show me how to add a toilet?

B. Look and feel

  • Is this well-organized?
  • Is this app complex to use?
  • Do you think you need technical person to run this app?
  • Do we still need app onboarding?

7.2 Second usability test: data capture sheet

The researcher should fill in:

7.3 Satisfaction

The app was pleasant to use (please tick as appropriate)

Look and feel

  1. Do you like theme of app?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Is this well-organized?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Is this app complex to use?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Do you think you need technical person to run this app?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
  • Do we need app onboarding?
 Strongly disagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly agree
Bar chart showing Satisfaction after usability testing of prototype 2.

7.4 Requirements for user evaluation of second prototype

Tester marked word

1st tester performed well again; now he able to identify direction button as share button. He did every test well.
2nd user likes onboarding thinks it is very important to have onboarding to an app. She did not find app hard to use because of learnability of app. She now likes further process in contribution.
3rd tester performed all task with excellency and finds theme of app very pleasant. He like how automatically updating offline maps on background is added to website. He also compliments on offline maps downloading over cellular networks.
4th tester took no time to unfollow followed collections. He likes the app UI.
5th tester finds app is easy to use in few clicks and says people will finds app complexity will decrease as more the user gets using it. He likes app theme and overall, everything.


There are lots of feature to added which will be added in future. There were maps to zoom in and out and list view to show nearest toilet, we could be able to preview it in details view. So even after second prototype are made there are lots of small feature which could make more difference in term of usability:
a. Even though design is good later again usability test can be done to improve design and get access to anything with fewer clicks. Lots of focus to design and features were given to wireframe and then first prototype, after usability testing there were changes to make in first prototype. So, second prototype were made after that there were even more features to bring to the app so it was pushed to future work.

b. Custom maps can be made which can replace google maps used in toilet app. User could tap on maps to get toilet details. A better integration of precise location history so that user can get smarter list in timeline tab. Starred collection should be easy to save if user click in save in detail view of toilet the popup should come in which user can save or create new collection easily.

c. Collection could be sorted by recently, most place added or by alphabetically. Also, for future work user could see each other profiles with point to compete to each other and also a chart board to show top 100 contributor.

d. User should be able to change their name, username which is left for future work. User can share their profile card in which other user can see contribution made by that user. User should have option to open app from last state so that if he/she was on contribution menu nav and exits the app, next time he/she launches app it would directly open contribution menu nav.
Later in future, features should be added and third prototype should be made and tester should be participated, of course with consent form. Testing should be done. Since it is never ending process, there should be more or less changes to survive modern world. In future work we can also raise funds and donations so that we can make public toilet on many busy places at first and later covering the areas.

9.REFERENCES 2020. Hierarchical Task Analysis | Usability Body Of Knowledge. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 August 2020].


10.1 Testers


10.2 Scanned consent form

MongoDB : Games Data

Task 1: MongoDB : Game Data

1. Create a database named <> and a collection named <> and insert the above data.

2. What is Map-Reduce? Explain the working of map-reduce with an example

3. Write a reduce function that calculates the total score for each player with the publisher name and count the number of players in each team.

4. Count the number of players in Hays Wise.

5. Remove the player “Alpha” from Ape Escape.

6. Update player name “Jordan” to “Michael” and score to 300.

7. Show all the number of players with their publisher name.

8. Show total goals scored by each country name.

Task 2: Development of a graph database for a given dataset

Find “Task_2_PremierLeauge_2019.csv” file from the Moodle. The dataset contains
information about the English Premier League (EPL) matches. You are expected to
design and create a graph database to visualize the dataset and to answer the following

  1. Create a Data Model diagram for “Task_2_PremierLeauge_2019.csv” dataset.
  2. Create nodes and relationship according to the Data Model which you have created
    in question no 1.
  3. Show all the EPL team involved in the season.
  4. Count all the matches refereed by each referee.
  5. Who refereed the most matches?
  6. How many matches “Arsenal” won as the away team?
  7. Display all the matches that “Man United” lost.
  8. Display all matches that “Liverpool” won but were down in the first half.
    Find “Task 2 – Match Keywords.txt” file for the keywords used in the EPL matches.

Task 3:

“Column-oriented storage in a database system are more suitable for analytical
reporting than the row-oriented database.” Justify this statement with suitable


Task 1

Question 1

Insert into collection 1
Insert into collection 2
Insert into collection 3
Result in table
Result in JSON

Question 2

MapReduce is a programming framework that allows data to be distributed and processed parallelly on a large sets of data environment. MapReduce consists of two primary tasks, Map and Reduce.

But the overall process of MapReduce can be divided into 6 stages; Input, Input Splits, Mapping, Shuffling, Reducer and Final Output.

Map reduce chart

To further evaluate the stages of MapReduce with an example, the fig (6)’s breakdown as following:

Input: The initial stage of MapReduce is to gather inputs and store it into blocks of data as provided in one big cluster.

Input Splits: This stage splits every blocks of data and prepare for mapping.

Mapping: Mapping breaks down every unique set of data, in this case every unique set of words and group them together within the block.

Shuffling: Shuffling is responsible to group the similar data from all the other cluster of data and group them together.

Reducer: Reducer reduces the block sizes as unique data of the blocks is divided into key and value pair, key being the actual data and value being the frequency of similar data.

Final Output: Finally, the reduced blocks are clustered into one with each unique data with their frequency as final output of data.

Question 3

Map reduce function
Map reduce result

Question 4

Task 1 question 4 query and result

Question 5

Task 1 question 5 query and result

Question 6

Task 1 question 6 query and result

Question 7

Task 1 question 7 query and result

Question 8

Task 1 question 8 query and result

Task 2

Question 1

Arrow diagram of EPL

Question 2

Neo4j graph create query
Graph result

Question 3

Task 2 question 3 query
Task 2 question 3 result in text 1
Task 2 question 3 result in text 2

Question 4

Task 2 question 4 query
Task 2 question 4 result in table 1
Task 2 question 4 result in table 2
Task 2 question 4 result in table 3

Question 5

Task 2 question 5 query
Task 2 question 5 result in table

Question 6

Task 2 question 6 query and result

Question 7

Task 2 question 7 query and result

Question 8

Task 2 question 8 query and result

Task 3

“Column-oriented storage in a database system are more suitable for analytical reporting than the row-oriented database.”

Column oriented database stores data by systematically arranging data by column of field, maintaining all of the data integrated with a field adjacent to each other in memory of database. This arrangement of tables is an important factor in analytic query performance because of the drastic reduction of overall disk input and output requirements and ultimately reduces the amount of data needed to load from disk (What Is A Columnar Database? – AWS 2020).

For example, on how a normal table is stored in column-oriented database. Let’s take the following table as a sample.

Samsung S98991.2
Google Pixel 37991.5
Example table

Each column is divided into separate storage disk, in first storage only the values of “Item” is stored.

Storage 1
iPhoneSamsung S9Google Pixel 3
Column oriented data storage 1

On second storage only the values of price are stored.

Storage 2
Column oriented data storage 2

On third storage only the values of weight are stored.

Storage 3
Column oriented data storage 3

The difference in this storage pattern is what makes retrieval of column field for data analysis quick and effective. If analysis had to make for getting the sum of prices of items, the columnar database goes to the storage 2 where all prices are stored and retrieves the values out of it. This saves much processing time and memory because it does not have to go through all rows to get those values of prices.

Advantages of Column Oriented Databases

  • Fast at retrieving and comparing data of column values.
  • Quick aggregation on larger datasets.
  • Compresses data column wise reducing memory usage.

Disadvantages of Column Oriented Databases

  • Lacks efficiency for online transaction processing usage.
  • Can be comparatively show when queries involve only a few rows.


Kiran, R., 2020. Mapreduce Tutorial | Mapreduce Example In Apache Hadoop | Edureka. [online] Edureka. Available at: <> [Accessed 19 August 2020].What Is A Columnar Database? – AWS (2020) available from <> [19 August 2020]

Data and Information Retrieval

Task 1: Database design

The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth
orbit. It is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews following previous orbital
stations that were launched by the US the former Soviet Union and later Russia. The
ISS is intended to be a laboratory, observatory and factory in space as well as to
provide transportation, maintenance, and act as a staging base for possible future
missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. In order to support the crew and overall
operation of ISS the space agencies in charge of running the station conduct regular
missions to launch spacecraft carrying payloads of essential or replacement
equipment up to ISS. A payload inventory, see table below, is recorded of each
mission, consisting of the space agency leading the mission and the equipment
payload to be sent up to ISS. The overall weight of the payload is also determined in
order to calculate the fuel needed for orbital insertion of the spacecraft to successfully
rendezvous with ISS.

Currently there is no database being used for managing the payload inventory
information in the table above.
This task is split up into two parts:

  1. In its current form, it’s a traditional DB. Keep it that way? Your call. Explain your
  2. Design the database for the information above. Implement the DB using any
    method of your choice (SQL, MongoDB, Cassandra DB or Graph DB).
    If it is a relational database it should be normalized first.

Task 2: Poster of ethics associated with a medical database

A hospital is considering producing a database from patient data it has collected over
the past 20 years to analysis itself and to sell to other interested parties. You should
create an A3 sized poster to describe ethics issues that the hospital should consider
before creating, analysis and making available this database. There are various
documents on the web on how the create a poster using PowerPoint. Please explore
these before you start.
You should create you’re A3 sized poster in PowerPoint and save it as a pdf
document for submission with your report. Your poster should identify ethical factors
that need to be considered when developing and analysis such a medical database,
offer recommendations to the hospital and drawn conclusions.

Task 3: A data mining system for a Hospital

A hospital has been collecting a great deal of data on their patients and have heard
that use of data mining could improve their service. They would like you to create a
brief report that includes the following:
i. What data mining is and an appropriate data mining application for the
ii. How you would go about creating the system using the data mining life
cycle below.
iii. If the small amount of data (diabetes.arff) collected so far by the hospital
is appropriate for assessing if a person has diabetes.
iv. The use of a data mining model such as a multilayer perceptron or
decision tree to determine whether a person has diabetes. Note, you will
need to use a data mining tool like WEKA to create your model and use
the diabetes.arff data to train and test this model.

Include a report section that addresses the four sections above and fulfils the marking

Task 4: Your Big Data Big Idea

Identify and implement an idea that you have about how you would use Big Data for
something intriguing.

  1. Purpose an idea and clearly outlined (What is the purpose of your data collection
    and analysis). In the lecture notes above, you can see that each idea is specific and
    has a specific purpose.
  2. Acquire the Data. You can do that in many ways including using available public
    large data sets.
  3. Analyze the data in order to achieve the objective you set out for yourself in step 1.
  4. Produce a report the includes your results, data visualization and thoughts.
    Write a short report about what you did and how it worked out. No more than 1000
    words. You should carry out research into these areas and reference your work using
    the CU Harvard Style.


Task 1: Database design

Question 1

I have proposed MongoDB for ISS database design and created the collection according to the data.

MongoDB is a document-based database which is built on a scale-out architecture for scalable applications which means it is a structure that allows collaboration of machines to work together which can ultimately create fast systems that handle huge amounts of data. Document based databases are flexible which means it can handle variations in the structure of documents and data (Why Use MongoDB & When to Use It?, 2020).

I have particularly used MongoDB because:

  • The document data model is a powerful method that can store and retrieve data quickly.
  • MongoDB can easily support larger volumes traffics and data.
  • MongoDB can enable collaboration between larger of team members.
  • MongoDB can store, manage, and search data with variety of data types like text, geospatial, and even time series dimensions.

Question 2

Collection create query 1
Collection create query 2
Collection create query 3
Final result in tabular format
Final result in JSON format 1
Final result in JSON format 2
Final result in JSON format 3

Task 2: Poster of ethics associated with a medical database

Ethical poster for hospital

Task 3: A data mining system for a Hospital

Question 1

Data mining is the process of exploring and analyzing sets of data to uncover efficient and meaningful patterns. The aim of data mining is to predict future trends and outcomes from historical or past data (Data Mining Explained, 2020).

The application of data mining can be as follows

  1. Database marketing
  2. Credit risk management
  3. Healthcare and bioinformatics
  4. Fraud detection
  5. Spam filtering
  6. Sentiment analysis

Data mining in healthcare

Healthcare professionals can use statistical models to predict the future of patient’s health condition per the risk factors. Other data like Demographic, family, and genetic data can be used to model a dataset which can help patients make changes in their lifestyle to prevent or lower the onset of negative health conditions preemptively.

Benefits of data mining

Automated Decision-Making: Data Mining can allow healthcare services to continually analyze data and automate the critical decisions of patient’s future without the delay of human judgment.

Accurate Prediction and Forecasting: Data mining can facilitate efficient planning and can provides healthcare services with reliable prediction of patient’s health based on past trends and current conditions.

Cost Reduction: Data mining can allow more efficient use and allocation of healthcare resources. They can plan and make best decisions with accurate prediction that will result in maximum cost reduction.

Question 2

Stages of Data Mining

Problem definition

In context to hospital and healthcare services, the prime factor of problem definition in data mining can be the forecast or prediction of future health risk of a patients. It can also aid healthcare employees to make critical decisions upon proceeding to either financially or medically. 

Data gathering

The data for hospital can be gathered with old data entries of hospitals. This is one of the important and early stages of data mining process. The data gathered should be consistent, accurate and meaningful.

Model Building

After data is collected next step is to build a data model for prediction of future trends. The model can be trained using different approaches along with different algorithms as per the needs of hospital.

Use Knowledge

Finally, upon completing the data modeling, it can be used to evaluate and predict the future outcome of patients related with the old patient’s behavior and sickness. The predictions will be relevant as per the data fed in training. If the results are inconsistent and inaccurate, future evaluation and filtration of data can be retrained for better outcomes.

Question 3

The small amount of data provided for data modeling is not effectively relevant in case of data mining. One of the primary reasons for this irrelevancy is that the prediction of small data modeling is very limited and inconsistent. For example, I have created 2 data modeling trees; one with small amount, with 7 datasets being fed to model data and another with around 700 datasets.
The tree made from small data is separated with 2 leaves only each extending from preg.

Upon evaluating, the result shows that it the preg is less than or equals to 4 it is tested negative and if greater than 4 it is positive.

While the decision tree made from big amount of data has multiple leaves extending from plas and preg is a sub leaf of it.

When comparing both the decision tree, there is a huge difference between them. The critical differences are the variables and nodes of each other and the result predicting whether it’s positive or negative.

If the data with any other variables other than preg like mass, age, pedi or preg are provided to predict from the first data model, the result will certainly be inconsistent and inaccurate. Where as from the second data model it can easily predict the strong and accurate result from those variables.

It’s not that we cannot make the data model from small amount of data, but the results, predictions and forecasts are highly in risk of being inaccurate. Hence, the more the data provided to model for a data mining, the better the result and prediction outcomes it can offer.

Question 4

Data mining Weka 1
Data mining Weka 2
Data mining Weka 3
Data mining Weka 4
Data mining Weka 5
Data mining Weka 6
Data mining Weka 7
Data mining Weka 8
Data mining Weka 9
Data mining Weka 10

Task 4: Your Big Data Big Idea

Question 1

I have a proposal of providing the data analysis and visualization of datasets of Netflix Tv shows and movies. The main idea behind this data analysis is to get an in-depth knowledge of data of Netflix. The size and amount of data of Netflix and how the data are divided into their data types. Additionally, I think it would to efficient and effective to break the huge data of Netflix to gain insights like how many shows are movies and how many are tv shows. Likewise, it would also be interesting to discover the differences in data within the dataset.

I will be visualizing the whole network of data, and also other charts and graphs are generated to aid some valuable insights to the dataset of Netflix.

Question 2

I have acquired this dataset of Netflix on website of Kaggle. URL for this particular dataset: I have not used all the data provided by the link, but I think the remaining data I have used is enough to show my findings.

Dataset example of Netflix for visualization

Question 3

There are total 6236 numbers of unique records in this dataset. There are 6 columns on the dataset with headers as; id, type, title, rating, duration and description.

The id is the unique id of the show, the type contains either the Netflix show is a TV show or a Movie. The title is the main title of the show. The rating shows categorizes show in TV-rating like “TV-14”, “R”, “TV-Y”, etc. The duration consists either the count of seasons of show or total minute of a movie. Description is simply the description of a show.

Question 4

Data visualization using Gephi
Edges of R rated shows of Netflix
Data visualization – Top 10 shows of Netflix according to duration
Data visualization – Total number of Netflix shows with ratings
Data visualization – Total number of Tv shows and movies


MongoDB. 2020. Why Use Mongodb & When To Use It?. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 17 August 2020].

MicroStrategy. 2020. Data Mining Explained. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 19 August 2020].

Django : NepaliGallery Website

1.1    Requirements

For this task you must design and implement your own website. You are free to choose your own ideas for this website. Your website must cover the following points:

  1. You must be creative in designing your website. Your website needs to offer novel solutions or distinct features to other existing/similar websites.
  2. You must use tools and technologies taught during this module such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript.
  3. You must use either Flask or Django as a templating framework.
  4. You must use either MySQL or PostgreSQL as database.
  • You must NOT use commercial software and/or 3rd party packages/libraries. For example, using Dream-weaver or Drupal to create your website is not allowed.

You must submit a reflective report for the website you created. The word limit for your report is 1,000 (+/- 10%) words. Your report must:

  1. Consider what you have learnt over the term.
  • Discuss each of the technologies you have used in creating the website.
  • Be reflective. For example, you must discuss your website was built in this way, and what you would do differently in the future.
  • Make good use of illustrative examples such as screenshots and code snippets.
  • On the cover page of your report, you must clearly mark a link to your Github repository where the source codes of your website can be accessed.
  • On the cover page of your report, you must clearly mark a link to your YouTube videocast.

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.Brief Introduction of the system

I have design clear and attractive website which includes different Html, CSS and JavaScript codes, well placed nav bar, image slider etc. I have included background image which can easily attract visitors view. Every JavaScript code that I have used helps my website run fast and functionally. I have used MySQL as the database system. Video I have made and upload describes even more clear about my web development.

2.Features of the system

My feature system includes a quality web content. It is clear and user friendly for the navigation. Although it is very simple and professional web design. Every links that I have used is very clear and connect speedy. It is well responsive also. My website and its content can optimize for different browsers, devices and users. It is one of the main features you need in your websites because if your website is not optimized well for mobile data users and download speed, users may leave your website. Responsive web design is key.


My aims are to gain even more knowledge from this subject web development which could help me more in future also. I have improved certain things about designing only but I need to learn more things about backend and database system to be successful in future.


One of the basic objectives of my websites is that user can view my project at any time. It is very fast and easy for anyone. There is less chances of getting error when opening the website. It is user authenticate platform so user can update any information’s or id they can.

5. What I have learned

I have learned to use bootstrap codes, JavaScript function and codes which I didn’t knew before.  Learning from basic things to the vast one makes me even more clear. I have learned how to make my website viewed on mobile size using bootstrap rather than media query. Using bootstrap makes my work even faster.

Chapter 2 Frontend

  1. For front end I have used different technologies such as html, CSS and JavaScript. Html and CSS is very easy to use whereas JavaScript makes me a bit hard to learn. But I have used JavaScript code in certain place which made my website even more faster and attractive.
Home page in pc
Home page in mobile size
Responsive design in mobile size
responsive design in pc size

2. With the utilization of responsive design, all the contents and pages easily blend across all the devices and screen resolutions. And whenever you are viewing the website on your mobile phones or a laptop, it is very easy to navigate in spite of the differing screen sizes. With responsive design your user can easily read and navigate the site with the minimum resizing and scrolling.

Chapter 3 Databases

  1. I have used MySQL as the database for the for website developing and it is very comfortable to linked with my project.
  2. There are some advantages and disadvantages of MySQL that I have noted down:


  • It is very fast and easy to use.
  • It is widely adopted


  • It is very hard to scale
  • It always supports mainly and readable contents.
Tables on database
image of user’s photo database

Chapter 4 Backend

  1. My backend process is very clear and very easy to use also. I have used all needed codes and function in PyCharm. Different functions for login, signup form, and add, update and delete are completely set up and utilized. I have also included URLs, views system forms and app. I have linked different html pages perfectly. It can run at anytime with different browsers.
  2. Django is the technology that I have used as python frameworks when developing web. I think Django is one of the best and reliable technology for any web developers. I have installed it easily and migrate it with MySQL for the backend process too.
inserting data into database
previewing data in database
updating data in database
deleting data from database

3. It is used when you are testing your website in different platforms. It also provides different services to your websites in different devices such as smartphones, pc, laptops etc.

Chapter 5 Project Issues

1.Issues during the project development

During the project I was unable to view my updated images which was solved later. Browser was not working properly when I was running my project. I tried multiple times for multiple file upload which was unsuccessful, so I decided to implement this work on future update. I had issues sending mail while resetting password which was solved later.

One of the main limitations of my websites is the contents that I have included during my website. All contents are clearly visible and easy to use. Different icons that I have set in my website is working properly. Navigation bar is easily navigating with each other. User can easily choose and input their username password of their own while logging in signing up their personal data.

2.Future Works

Implement like and unlike button on this photography website. Nepali Gallery could be better if the artists could sell their photography and art in this website. Payment system is left for future work. Multiple file upload is missing for users will be implemented later. I am happy to say that is less future work to be done as this website works wonderfully for my project criteria.


After the completion of Modern web design, I came to know about bootstrap, JavaScript and Django. Website became easier to design with bootstrap. Lot of line of code were already defined. Work flow became easier, lots of time were saved. While creating slider I implemented JavaScript to make it functional. Backend was done using Django and MySQL as database. I learned that we could design database table form which can be easy later for migration to new system. Over all this project was fun to implement my course work.

Website :

Nepali Gallery

Report : Computer and crime

Technology and its Legal, Social and Ethical Context

Computer and crime

computer is an electronic programmable machine where the actual machinery is hardware and the instructions and data are software. In this era computer is used for different purposes depending on one’s needs and wants. With the increasing number of computer users’ crimes involved by the use of a computer and a network are increasing day by day. Using computers for illegal purposes like; committing fraud, trafficking intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy, plotting a virus, hacking someone’s computer etc. are examples of cybercrime or computer crime. The very first recorded cybercrime is supposed to be recorded in 1820 where textile manufacturer in France named Joseph-Marie Jacquard, produced the device loom which allowed the repetition of the series of steps used in the weaving of special fabrics. Because of absence of proper rules and regulations in Nepal business organizations used electronic materials and computers for fraud. However, the exact date recorded for the first cybercrime couldn’t be found in Nepal till now.  With the technological advancement computer crimes are now increasing rapidly in many countries and are becoming very serious problems that are costing up to billions of dollars. The advancement on information technology and cyberspace has made this world as a small global village. People can get access of all information about the world from their home using internet. The trends of global terrorism have also changed because of IT. Cybercrime has become a new weapon for the potential threat in international peace and global security. As government and business entities use computer for their day to day operation criminals are getting easy access to the data and information via. cybercrime related activities. So, we can say without any doubt that cyber and computer crime will keep increasing as it is networked internationally, which makes computer criminals to get access of it easily.

The application of scientific knowledge for the fulfillment of practical aims of human beings and to make difference as well as manipulate the human environment is known as technology while the moral principles that regulate technology behaviors can be called technology ethics. Nepal is a developing country landlocked by the two largest countries China and India. Nepal is so much influenced by the progress and development brought out by the information technology. So, talking on the context of Nepal, information and technology is being used for the competitiveness, growth and the need of modern world as well to advance, expand and to sustain national economy. If technology ethics are followed by the citizens or by IT users, IT can play important role to increase productivity in public administration, communication, infrastructure, industry and agriculture of countries like Nepal. Technology ethics ensure effective, efficient and economic IT operation by implementing appropriate IT system. Technology has helped people to raise their living standards and to solve problem. Although, technology has brought positive as well as negative impact on day to day human life. There are some people who take advantage of technology for the purpose of committing crimes which has led to the cybercrime. So, to prevent cybercrimes cyber laws should be enforced and technology ethics should be implemented.

With the implementation of new delivery channel such as ATM, internet banking, mobile banking etc. by Banks and financial institutions there have been increased risk of financial loss and electronic fraud along with other banking risk. Cyber fraud can be done by both internal and external parties of an organization. So, in such scenarios, it is important to regulate and guide IT related activities in institutions to strengthen the organization for tackling with emergency cyber fraud, managing information technology prudently and migrating risk aroused from implementation of information technology. So, there is necessity of technology ethics in modern world. For the potential ethical implication for the future in such financial sectors, as well as other sectors where there is maximum use of information technology can be:

Promote sound and robust technology risk management system as well as strengthen system security in the organizational environment.

There should be a board approved information security policy.

They need to conduct Risk assessment periodically as well as an organization should take necessary measures to ensure that all of its employees, consultant and contractors are aware of information security policy.

Appropriate implementation of physical and environmental control should be taken into consideration of threat for example, geographical location, building configuration, neighboring entities etc.

Focus on security health and detect as well as fix vulnerabilities.

Configuration with highest level of security setting in operating system, firewall and system software.

Development and implementation of comprehensive computer virus protection mechanism.

Deployment of strong cryptography and end-to-end encryption to protect customers PIN, user password and other security sensitive data in networks and in storage.

  • Maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability.
  • Evaluation of data risk.
  • Application of additional controls if using wireless network.
  • CCTV installation at ATM’s.
  • Outsourcing management.

Replacement of magnetic stripe cards with chip-based cards.

If I were on a position to make change, I would apply following resolutions to mitigate ethical tensions in Banks and Financial institutions:

Update User Passwords time to time:

Before the beginning of new fiscal year, organizations should change the passwords on all office computers and electronic devices, that means everything that needs a parole. Renovating user passwords is an inconvenient job, but understanding the persistency of today’s hackers is an important task to do. The shorter the passwords, the easier to decode the password. Hackers mostly use different types of operations to access the data, so the data safety depends on how strong the passwords are. So, creating a password policy can help to manage the passwords of all employees which creates a culture of password security in an organization.

Updating All the Software to Their Latest Version

Newer technology is always better. Since an updated device or computer is equipped with the latest security patches it is always harder to crack. Office software used in day to day transaction needs to be regularly updated by the IT department/ by the employees themselves if possible. Software updates provide more security & improve the performance of computers, allowing them to run faster and handle multiple applications in a breeze.

Educating Employees on how to deal with Online Attacks

Every staff of an organization should have knowledge about potential threats that are lurking online and the safety measure to protect their devices as well as ways of sorting out phishing e-mails, practicing proper password management, deterring hackers etc. At least once a year, there should be scheduled an online security seminar for employees to keep them up to speed with the latest online threats and also making them understand the new security measures and encouraging employees to share any helpful tips they know can help to reduce ethical problems.

Substantive criminal law provisions are found to be covering the most common forms of computer crimes in huge no. of countries unlike the situation related to digital evidence. Very a smaller number of countries have addressed specific aspects of digital evidence and also international binding standards are lacking.  

The Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act 2004, also known as the cyber law, was passed in 2004. Before 2004, Public Offence Act used to regulate cybercrimes in Nepal and even though Nepal Police were not aware about the technical aspects of cybercrimes they used to deal with them. That means; the sanctions were not effective and relative to the crime committed by the guilty party.

Cyber world in Nepal is now regulated by Electronic Transaction Act (EAT) 2063 which acts as a shield for the users against cybercrimes like deleting data, hacking, software piracy, invite criminal and civil sanctioning to individuals and institutions, stealing e-documents and posting defamatory information etc. This law has tight rules and regulation but as there is lacking of proper monitoring and updates the cyber law is present but, not efficient. In the growing technological world EAT has been fixed constant. Internet provides easy access to the data and information but at the same time it threats privacy related issues. Nepal is facing massive hindrance, threats and challenges because of nation lacking good governance, proper mechanism and measures to cater that need at time of emergency and proper policies based on research works. Due to the rapid growth in technological world with the emerging new global commerce in ideas, information and services cyber law has become essential part of day to day operation. Information Technologies (IT) has changed most of the human activities like trade, education, entertainment, communication, culture and knowledge and as a result, there is increasing need to develop and modernize the law to utilize technological improvements and to guarantee that the government can respond to computer crime and crime related issues that come along with developments. The cyber law works under legal issues like freedom of expression, intellectual property, privacy and jurisdiction but due to the lacking of cyber forensic and investigation chances of catching the criminals has deemed. Cyber Law of Nepal has to overcome the challenges it has been facing till date to protect online communication from being turned into a serious crime.

Every aspect of our lives has changed due to technology and also impacts provided by technological changes are huge in modern community. One of the greatest business challenges is How to manage the process of cultural change. Now different countries are adopting different cultures and countries are digitally divided by access and availability. Email, skype, telephone or social medias are the major facets of todays’ global communication culture. But still understanding and respecting the differences is the key to successful communication in this era. Humans are social creatures, so human interactions cannot be replaced by any technologies. For the effective communication both the human and digital elements are to be used, that is body language is still the powerful key of communication.  Different possible technologies are dividing cultures. In another word we can say that Technology directly influence culture and vice versa. When culture changes the change innovates the technology and with the technological evolution cybercrimes also get increased increasing the risk in data management and privacy leaking issues. Change in technological culture can create massive bad impacts like, misrepresentation, stereotyping and the risk of loss of culture and intellectual property rights, unmonitored access, negative influence on social values, loss of group identity and individualism etc. It can also have positive impacts like it allows the spread of customs, language and the products, it allows people to be able to attain goods and services easily, makes easier to understand global community and their cultures etc. Technology has increased the opportunity for education, improved communication, allowed people to participate in a wider and worldwide society. So, we can conclude that the change in technological culture has improved human life in some expect but still it has many negative impacts. It has increased the risk of cybercrimes and not respecting each other’s values and norms.

                  Hence in conclusion we can say that, computer has made our life easier but along with the benefits we have to bear some negative impacts brought out by the technological changes. Enacting the proper rules and regulations for the computer related crimes can help in regulation of cyber ethics thus helping to build the better world for today and tomorrow. All people should give their best to maintain ethics and to flourish a great technological culture in a modern world.

Medium. (2020). Cyber Crime in context to Nepal. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Feb. 2020]. (2020). 7 Cybersecurity Resolutions for 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Feb. 2020].

A self-reflective essay on the skills learned during the course of your STW 201CS- Effective Communication Skills program. Include any strengths, weaknesses, and personal areas of development.

In this reflective essay as a template for this assignment I am using Gibbs Reflective Cycle. Every person interaction varies how they interact with other people. This is a expressing adverse reflection on importance of self-awareness and personal development. In other term it is a detail inspection from their own behaviors of one’s outlook on life.

By examining myself and friends’ feedback to me to become aware of myself. Conscious of my privileges, perceptions, prejudices, beliefs, core values and behaviors. Aware of blind spots, my strengths and weaknesses. I have learned many things throughout the semester. I can say effective communication is about understanding the intentions and emotion behind the information, we also need to listen and gain full meaning of what others say or convey to us and make them feel that we are hearing them and also understanding them. Yes, it is about more than exchanging information.

Effective communication sounds like it is done without conscious thought, but many times when we try to communicate to people something goes away from the correct path. People have different perspective and maybe misunderstand us or have frustration, there might be conflict. This can cause us difficulty at work, relationship or college.

For us communication skills can intensify our connection with others, improve team work, our overall emotional and social health, problem solving and build significant respect and trust. So, we need learning skills to improve communication with our sir, friends and family.



My first interpretation is I usually get tense and overburdened when there is assignment or any types of workload. I usually avoid taking risky or even related activities. Yes, it is not good characteristic as an aim to be IT manager in future. I should always be ready to take risk and deal with it. My behavior changes with a people around me when sometimes things do not work out properly. Because a leader should have ability to tackle and manage tough situation instead, I get hyperactive, which is not good characteristic of my personality.

Common barriers that stops me from communicating effectively:

Lack of Focus:  We need to stay focused and avoid distractions. I easily get distracted. When we are multitasking, we can’t communicate effectively. If we are checking Facebook, we are likely to miss some clues in conversation.

Out of control emotion and stress:  We can learn how to rapidly calm down before continuing a conversation to avoid misunderstanding and conflicts. When I am emotionally overwhelmed or stressed out, I am likely to misread another person.

Negative body language: tapping my feet, crossing my arm or avoiding eye contact are my negative body language. If I disagree with somebody’s saying I usually use these body languages. Avoiding sending negative signal is important.

Inconsistent body language: My body language mostly doesn’t match what I am saying. Our listener can feel like we are being dishonest with them.


My strength actually is my special skills. I think they are gift to me. Everybody has some special skills. I have many skills one of them is athletic. I love sports weather I’m playing them or watching them. I always know what I want and I try my hardest to get it. I can also say myself as very hard working and very determined person. Currently my strength includes my passion and honesty toward my work. I am always confident and positive regarding my targets and aims. I can take quick decision and right or good decision among all of above. Along with these, I can motivate group of people and do team work. If I make target I work day and night and I achieve my goal since I am responsible person.

Personal Areas of Development

Looking back to everything that I have learned in effective communication. I knew that I have some personal areas to be developed. I am not kind of listener person. I have poor body language. I am not engaged listener.

Here are some areas that I will be developing:

Focusing fully on the speaker: We can’t listen consistently to anyone for long time. My main distraction here is phone. We need to be focused on the moment to really pick up fine details and important clue in conversation. We can try repeating the speakers or influencers word to stay focused if we find hard to concentrate.

Spiritual Development: Spirituality plays vital role whether you follow religion or not. Truth be told, Religion and spirituality are actually two altogether different things and we can be spiritual without being even the slightest bit religious. When I work on improving my spirituality, I am making deeper connection with the world around me. This help me learn more about myself and it can help me in other area of personal development.


Personal development refers to a set of exercise that one can participate for the propose of enhancing identity and self-knowledge.  It includes ability and potential advancement, working of human capital just as employability, improving the quality of life, and last but not least playing a role towards the realization of aspirations and dreams.

Office Solutions Development: The Health and Energy Centre

You are a self-employed IT contractor and have been approached by the Director of The
Health and Energy Centre to provide advice on the software needed for a new information
system at the centre. The centre has been providing health and fitness classes for
thousands of people for the past twelve years.
The Director has decided that he wants to sell health and fitness goods in addition to
offering health and fitness classes. He is interested in purchasing Project Management
Software to help him achieve a new system. He is also interested in how data mining
software could benefit the centre and he would like advice on application software that
would help advertise the centre’s services and products.


Task 1 – Application software and business processes

a)   Explain the purpose of project management software and discuss, with reference to FOUR (4) examples, FOUR (4) ways that project management software could benefit the Health and Energy Centre.

The software which is used for resource allocation, project scheduling, planning and change management. It helps person to manage budgeting, quality management with cost control on expenses and time management.

  • Risk analyzation and taking measures:

it sees the future hazard and take measures for the issues that may emerge in the coming future.

  • Cost management:

it sees where and how much the measure of money must be contributed in an alternate segment for activity of the venture.

  • Quality management:

it decides and supervise the quality and time for the assignment to be finished.

  • Resource allocation:

it gives legitimate diagram to the client from the information given by the about step by step instructions to apportion the assets in a viable manner

Benefits of the health and energy center in the ways that a project management software is through:

  • Time Management:

for various errand execution the middle can utilize venture the executives programming to oversee time and designate staff as indicated by errand that must be performed.

  • Risk evaluation:

evaluation of the hazard should be possible by the utilization of venture the board programming through which Center can go for broke a few measures for market hazard to avert misfortunes.

  • Task Monitoring:

(measure, assess, right) this product assesses the assignment and take measures to address the mistake. for example, in the event that the item brought for the Center is outdated or will cause hurt in any capacity to the client those items ought to be supplanted with great ones.

  • Budget management:

for the diverse errand and for the pay the executives of the staff which will give legitimate diagram of the interest in various parts.

b)   Discuss how data mining software could benefit the center and support your answer with reference to EIGHT (8) features of data mining software.

  • Perceives client necessity which could be satisfied.
  • It gives legitimate examined information to the Center to expand its business further.
  • It makes decision making on a product that are to be available for customer.
  • It makes work easier by the data which was collected.
  • It makes simpler for promoting through information gathered from client looking for related administrations and items given by the Center.
  • Data mining is useful to anticipate future patterns wellness items and administrations.
  • showcase examination on wellbeing and wellness classes and item offers movement identified with it.
  • It encourages understanding client needs.

c)   Identify FOUR (4) types of application software that could be used to market the services and products offered at The Health and Energy Centre and for FOUR (4) marks explain how each type of software that you have identified could be used to promote the center’s services and products.

The four types of application software are-

  • Enterprise Software:

It manages prerequisite of association and stream of information.

  • Words Processing Software:

The program is utilized for making type papers, letters, word sheets and so forth. Example:  MS word

  • Information employee Software:

 It can handle creation projects and needs in the department. Example- PowerPoint

  • Database Software:

This product stores information that are connected to the project management software. example- MS excel.

Task 2 – End-user development

a)   If staff at the center are involved in developing elements of application software they will need to plan carefully. Outline SEVEN (7) factors that the staff will need to consider when planning end user development.

  • The worker must make the application that is comprise of differ comparable working procedure as the application client have utilized previously.
  • The application must fill in according to the necessity gave by the provider.
  • The application they are making must be maintainable because any moment there can be chances of making modification according to the requirement.
  • The client must have legitimate learning of programming and coding so they could appropriate programming language which will be reasonable for their task.
  • The security arrangement of the application must be made excellent so the information robbery and other hacking stuff isn’t possible.
  • The producer must have confidence to give documentation about the project.
  • Before starting the project in first they have to manage the budget system.


b)   Describe NINE (9) potential problems that the center could face if its end users are involved in developing elements of application software.

  • Staff are not prepared so they can’t set up a legitimate arrangement and estimation to build up the product it isn’t effectively.
  • Staff have not learning of programming and coding so they may set aside a lot of effort to build up the product.
  • Their created Software there may be botch in the total outcome.
  • Programming are does not tried legitimately so it contains numerous blunder and bugs while programming testing time.
  • It may occur errors in financial management.
  • Programming ought to be grown yet its plan probably won’t be all around reported so it is inadequately.
  • Programming were not organization so it can’t keep running on various stages.
  • Programming are does not tried legitimately so it contains numerous mistake and bugs while programming testing time
  • Staff are not trained to develop the software efficiently.

c)   Explain how problems arising from end user development can be avoided. Support your answer with NINE (9) recommendations.

  • There may be poor comprehension between experienced engineer they have to discuss the misconception.
  • User Interface must be made so every client could utilize and effectively get it.
  • The file should be kept safe and the work should be done nicely.
  • It may occur bug in code we have to consult to expert programmer.
  • The testing should be done properly for the future reference.
  • There should be present of validation while doing the program.
  • The user interface must be made easy so all the users can understand.
  • Before making any changes, they have to consult to the excellent programmers.
  • In the documentation there should be explained properly.

Task 3 – Advanced features and functions of Microsoft Word

a)   Create a macro that demonstrates how a word processing feature can be undertaken more efficiently if it includes automation.

  • Initiating macros
Initiating macros
  • Recording the macro and giving style to bold and Italian and underlining the text.
Recording the macro and giving style
  • Start to record macros.
button design and start of macros record.
  • Macro successfully completed by clicking the toolbar and selecting the remaining paragraph .
Macro successfully completed by clicking the toolbar
  • Code of macros
macros function performed.

b)   The Director has asked you to create an additional macro to demonstrate the efficiency of automation in a word-processed document.

Macros name
recording the macros
start initiating name
mail merges- value data placement
mail merges data placement
inputting the data in mail merges
making macros for mail merges
making macros step 5
step 6 of mail merges
Code for macros
Testing macros worked

Task 4 – Advanced features and functions of Microsoft Excel

a)   The Director has requested that you produce an interactive form that facilitates the following:

creating a form in excel
Form created
Form data input
code for application form

b)   You have been asked to add to the interactive form that you have produced for Task 4 You should edit the macro so that the following actions occur:

form with macros level showing message
form with macros level showing buttons
codes of form
message code of form


The health and fitness center have asked for following queries which was solved in this task. Application software and business process with end user development was done. We also have used advanced feature and function of Microsoft word and excel.


      (2019). 12. Budget Planning – Project Management. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Apr. 2019].

Designing and Developing a Website : MardiDrama Club

MardiDrama Club is a fun after school and weekend club that is open to children between
the ages of 5-16. It offers a fun programme but also teaches children some of the
fundamentals about speaking and helping them develop confidence.

MardiDrama Club have approached you and asked you to develop a new website for
them. Although they currently won’t be taking any payments online, they hope to develop
this later in the year. They need you to create a website which will allow parents to find
out about the different drama classes that are available and to register for these. The
website should be visual and should be viewable on different devices.

MardiDrama have the following basic requirements for the contents of the website:
• Home Page: This page will advertise the different classes (Musical Theatre, After
School, Holiday Programmes) and should have three image links to these classes.
Relevant social media buttons and search bar should be included on a clean
looking home page which includes interactive elements which grabs the attention of
the visitor.
• Blog: This page will provide up to date information about events and classes
happening in the Drama Club.
• Register: This page will allow parents to register their child for one of the classes.
Registration will be via email following the completion of an online form.
• About: This page should give parents an overview of the different classes and the
club which started in 2001. It should have space for information about the teacher
and links back to the contact page and blog.
• Where: This page should include an interactive map of the club’s location in
• Classes: This page should provide videos and information about the different
classes including payment information (£15.00 or equivalent per hour).
• Events: This page provides a list of the events that take place in the drama club
such as Nativity, Summer Play or guest appearances from well-known stars from
the industry.

At the initial stage of the development process, you are required to make an HTML/CSS
prototype of the website that will clearly show MardiDrama Club how the final website
could work.
Content hasn’t been provided. Suitable content can be found on the web e.g. images of
drama clubs. Use creative commons ( or
Wikimedia Commons ( as a starting point
to find content. Remember the content you include in your site must be licensed for re-use.
Do not spend excessive amounts of time researching and gathering content. The
purpose is to provide a clear indication of how the final website could look and function.
The client would provide the actual content at a later point if they are happy with the
website you have proposed.

Task 1 – HTML
The website must be developed using XHTML 1.0 Strict or HTML 5 and feature a
minimum of SEVEN (7) interlinked pages which can be viewed also on a mobile device.
The website must feature the content described above and meet the following criteria:
• Feature between 7 and 10 HTML pages.
• Have a lightblue background colour.
• Be usable in at least TWO (2) different web browsers including a mobile device.
You should consult your tutor for guidance on the specific browsers and versions
you should use.
• Be viewable on monitors with screen resolutions of 1024×768 without users having
to scroll horizontally.
• Integrate and use a range of media appropriately.
• Embed functional multimedia components in your site.
• Demonstrate a good application of web design principles and be easy to navigate
and use and really captures the attention of the parents.


I have used HTML 5 for designing website. HTML 5 is latest version of HTML. We use <!DOCTYPE html> syntax for declaration. The default character encoding in HRML 5 is UTF-8.

            HTML 5 consists of new element such as <header>, <section>, <article>, <svg>, <canvas>, <audio>, <video>, <footer> and attributes like number, date, time, calendar, and range.

doctype declaration
Firefox Preview
Chrome Preview
Resolution 1024*768 – no horizontal scroll
Image link on the home page
social media links
Search Bar
CSS used for html form a
CSS used for html form b
CSS used for html form c
CSS used for html form d
CSS used for html form e
multimedia elements used – video
Background Color Sky-blue

Types of images

I have used PNG format for my design of website. PNG file format has many advantages over jpeg and gif. PNG has higher compression rate. It has better compression rate. This type of file is easy to low while user has low internet connection.

PNG helps in transparency layer image. It also has built in gamma correction due to which user can see an image which was meant to see while captured. It is open standard and free license which is developed by W3C and will always be free. This is why I choose PNG format for websites.

Accessibility features used in your media

There is not much accessibility feature in this web design. Though I have used alt tags for image alternative. Placeholder are used for thumbnail so that it’s easy for video preview. There is play, pause, Fullscreen, play picture in picture and also user can download for offline on the go.

Task 2 – CSS

Create external CSS file that specifies the design for the website. Each of the HTML pages must link to this CSS file. There should be no use of the style attribute or the <style> element in the website.

The boxes on the home page should include relevant elements such as border radius,
box-shadow, hover etc.
Include CSS animation-timing for at least one of the elements on the home page.
Add in a mediarule which changes the background colour from lightblue to white when the
browser window is 600px wide or less

=> CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. The way I used external CSS because It is style sheet language used for explaining the presentation of document written in a markup language like hyper text mark of language. It is useful for designing the website with its respective viewing specific experience.

External CSS link

CSS selectors

Id: It identify one element. It is indicated as “#” in CSS.

Class: It identifies one and more than one CSS elements. It is indicated as “.” In CSS.

Inheritance: It is last thing we need to investigate for all the information. It is also used to understand what style is applied in the element.

Multiple selectors: It is usually used for grouping. Any type of valid selector can be placed in that group and match up as same style-based property.

Descendant: All the elements that are descendants of a specified element are always matched with descendant selector.

Search Box
Media Query code
white background on width 600px

Task 3 – Test the Website and Write a Test Report

You must use the W3C validation service ( to check your HTML and
CSS code. You should attempt to remove as many non-compliant features as possible.
Make sure ‘show source’ is selected and save the output from this tool.
Test the website using at least TWO (2) different web browsers. Record any significant
differences between the rendering of the two browsers and attempt to diagnose the cause.
You do NOT need to modify your code to correct any differences between browsers.
Please consult your tutor for advice on the specific browsers you should use for testing.
Write a short report describing your testing. Provide a description of any outstanding
problems and recommendations for fixing them and include a clear description of the
differences between the brewers and the reasons for these. Add in a description of how
the site works on a mobile device and the reasons for these.

Validation and Browser testing:

Browser testing was done. While testing in chrome Version 73.0.3683.86 (Official Build) (64-bit) I found the design and layout was awesome. It looked well designed in width 600px. I also tested my design in Firefox Quantum 66.0.3 (64-bit). The result was quite different. I found that search bar icon was not in place. While I looked for 600px width I found that everything was working well and design was awesome.

Home page validation

Home Page Validation
Home Page error

Blog page validation

Blog Page Validation
Blog Page Error

All HTML page validation

There was same warning Because of header and footer and I found one error in google maps embedded link and also there were some warnings.

CSS validation

CSS validation

Mobile Validator

mobile validator


At the end, I have corrected the warning and errors while testing all the design of website. There was some mismatch in paragraph. I corrected headers and navigation too. After completion I found some warning. Some warning was ignored and many were removed. I also found error in google maps embedded link which was ignored. Now. After all validation I have seen no errors to be corrected.

Chrome Output
Firefox Output

There were lots for problem and mismatch code due to which there was mismatch in overall design. Finally, after solving all problem on chrome, the design in chrome seems to be perfect. There was the same design as I had designed in photoshop.

After that, I looked same code on Firefox I found that the search icon was somehow below. There was design mismatch. So, these are the only problem that I faced while seeing output on both web browser. First of all, I looked into code to find some error but I only found warnings which didn’t affect website.

The recommendation of fixing is to see output on different website and the give extra code that fixes all the design mismatch for all the browser individually.

Task 4 – Critical Evaluation

Analysis of the website

You are required to write a short report (500 words) analysing the website you have
You should:
• Evaluate and demonstrate an understanding of accessibility issues
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the CSS and what improvements you feel should be
made to this file now you have completed it
• Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using various types of multimedia file
• Explain the advantages and disadvantages of different types of multimedia
elements in relation to different contexts
• Recommend improvements for further development of the website.
This analysis must include a discussion of the accessibility of the website and the ways in
which the website has been designed to support mobile users.

Additional Information for Clarification
Consult with your tutor/lecturer if you are uncertain about any aspects of the assignment.
The website must be developed using XHTML 1.0 Strict or HTML 5 and CSS. No other
technologies should be used. You do not need to write any computer programs for this
The purpose of this assignment is to show abilities in web design. Although you should be
wary of needlessly adding features, websites that demonstrate a range of HTML features
used appropriately have the potential to gain higher marks. For example, a form that
features a range of different form elements applied in a useful and relevant way would
generally score a higher mark than a simple form that only uses text boxes to gather data.

Accessibility of the website:

Internet is vast, World Wide Web have conquered the world. Accessibility of website is very import on modern website designing and developing. In this modern world almost, all website is designed as accessible. In the current world there is room for all the differently able people. This is understood by designer and developer too. This website has much accessibility feature in this web design. Though I have used alt tags for image alternative. Placeholder are used for thumbnail so that it’s easy for video preview. There is play, pause, Fullscreen, play picture in picture and also user can download for offline on the go.

Designed to support mobile users

There is lot of mobile device than laptop in hand of people. Everyone takes mobile devices anywhere they want because they are portable and are cheaper comparatively laptop. There are more people surfing internet in their mobile devices so it’s also important to develop a well designed mobile friendly website for user accessibility too. As the task, I have also designed for the mobile devices that has less than 600px width. So, there is white background and beautifully designed website on every mobile device. They can easily read the content of web page. Photo and video have simplified there is all sort of feature included so that user can use as what they find easy.

Effectiveness of the CSS

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is an external file which is linked in HTML (Hyper Text Mark of Language). Since our website is viewed in many screen sizes, we also need to provide specific media query to each screen size which can be frustrating in HTML. This can be used for one CSS file rather than editing bulky content pages. For each site, all the CSS ought to be structured by a single, focal plan gathering. Two reasons: First, brought together plan is the best way to guarantee a steady style and receive one of the principle rewards of templates. Second, most of Web content makers are not equipped for planning and composing great templates.

Multimedia file formats

Adding Video and Audio elements to a Site page make it simpler to grab user attention users. Visual is the most prominent sight and sound options, locales additionally add audio and intuitive substance to crave in and hold the taking of consideration of the users which is major advantage. While HTML5 content-based sites are more intricate than site of the past, they are yet limited from numerous points of view. It is hard to speak to a brand/brand’s picture without including audio or video substance to help it. All things considered, mixed media departments are every now and again favored by promoting offices as a result of their capacity to totally show banding.

There are also some drawbacks too. Loading time of video can increase which is not to for modern website developers, compatibility of video differs with web browser. There are lots of web browser currently and many people has their choice in browsers. It is also harmful for search engine ranking.

Types of multimedia elements

Text is one of the media components utilized in the site. Ordinarily we can discover it from Web. Human are utilizing texts to speak with other individuals. From Web we can utilize Email to send instant message to other individuals, we additionally can utilize share status or offer anything you need to share to give your companion or family realize what is at the forefront of your thoughts. We likewise can share or give data in forum. While most Internet browsers suit numerous audios, video, and visual photo documents groups, problem can occur.


In this assignment I have designed well accessible website for Mardi Drama Club. I also have done testing of website and I also have done critical evaluation to find better version of this website. I have only used HTML and CSS for this website.

Reference (2019). Multimedia File Formats. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Apr. 2019].

Preview Website

Mardi Drama Club

Designing and Developing Object-Oriented Computer Programs : Language Trainer

The mind is like any part of the body – it needs exercise to stay healthy. There are many
cognitive training regimes that exist for that, but one of the most effective for memory is
the game known as ‘concentration’. In this game, fifty-two cards are laid face down on a
table. Each player takes a turn flipping over a card and then attempting to flip over a
second card with the same colour and value. For example, if we flip over the five of hearts
we would want to flip over the five of diamonds as our secondary selection. If we make a
match, the cards are removed and added to our score. If they don’t match, they are flipped
back face down and the other player is given an opportunity to flip two matching cards.
Players continue taking turns until all cards have been matched.
This is a powerful technique for training observational faculties and short-term memory,
and it’s your job for this assessment to write a piece of software that implements this
system with a difference – you’ll be looking to match English words and their translation for
several languages (two for the purposes of this assessment). For example, we might want
to match the English word ‘Hot’ with the French word ‘chaud’. For the purposes of this
assessment, it does not matter what language you use but the flashcards presented at would be an appropriate place to find suitable pairings. You
can use whatever language you like otherwise.
Your application should present players with a grid of fifty-two buttons, and each of those
will map on to a word or its translation. Each player will select a button, which will reveal its
contents, and a second button which will do the same. If there is a match, the buttons
should disappear, and the player should get a point. If not, the contents should be hidden,
and control should go to the next player.
The system then needs to allow the following:
• It needs to permit for players to choose a word set.
• It needs to create a grid of twenty-six words and their translations and map those to the
• It needs to keep track of turn order and player actions within a turn
• It needs to eliminate used words from the UI
• It needs to track score and matches of buttons.
• A high score table of players and scores for each language should be retained
The program will also need to store user data such as name, success rates with particular
words, average score and average time to complete a game.
Your program then will need to perform the following operations:
• Set up the GUI
• Provide a way to add, modify and delete word sets.
• Provide players a way to choose word sets
• Set up an internal representation of words to their translation
• Map UI buttons to the words in the word set
• Implement a turn order for players
• Award points based on matching words and their translation
• Disable UI elements based on correctness of matches.
• Save the user data and statistics of each user along with the high score table.

Task 1

For a program which fully meets the requirements of the brief as
outlined above.


dB connection

Db Connection 1
DB Connection 2
DB Connection 3
DB Connection 4


Player Class


Word Class


Add Player

Insert form 1
Insert Form 2
Insert Form 3


GameForm 1
Game Form 2
Game Form 3
Game Form 4
Game Form 5
Game Form 6
Game Form 7
Game Form 8
Game Form 9


Dash Form 1
Dash Form 2
Dash Form 3


Insert form 1
Insert form 2
Insert Form 3


Update Form1
Update Form 2
Update from 3


View Form 1
View Form 2

Task 2- Testing

Black Box

IdFormDescriptionTest ValuesExpectedActualResult
1Insert PlayerInserting player namePlayer1: test Player2: testGame form should be opened and insert player form should be closedGame form is opened and insert player form is closedPass
2Insert PlayerTesting Back button Insertplayer form should be closed and dash should be openedInsertplayer is closed and dash is openedPass
3GameTesting loading of player name from insert player formPlayer1:test Player2:testGame should load with player1 and player 2 nameGame is loaded with player1 and player2 namePass
4GameTesting English button click at first Button should display English language wordButton displays English language wordPass
5GameTesting Nepali button at first Messagebox showing “Please select English word first” should be displayedMessagebox showing “Please select English word first” is displayedPass
6DashTesting start button click Dash should be closed and insertplayer form should be loadedDash is closed and insertplayer form should be loadedPass
7UpdateTesting update buttonId:25 Word1: Test Word2:TestMessagebox showing “Updated” should be displayedMessagebox showing “Updated” is displayedPass
8UpdateTesting delete buttonId:25Messagebox showing “Deleted” should be displayedMessagebox showing “Deleted” is displayedPass
Black box test


White Box 1
White Box 2
White Box 3
White Box 4
White Box 5
White Box 6
White Box 7
White Box 8
White box all

Task 3- Class Diagram

Class Diagram

Computer Networks: Wheeler Energy

This assignment enables you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of
computer networks. You are required to produce a substantial document that totals 3000
words. Subsequently, you are advised to start work on the assignment at an early stage
during the unit. The assignment is divided into tasks, which relate to the sequence of the
module, so you do not need to wait until all the teaching is finished to start them.
Some aspects of this assignment will require you to research real components that are
currently available in the marketplace. Furthermore, you will also be asked to make
judgements about what is best for a particular scenario. Please note that there is not
always one right answer. However, you will need to justify your reasons for any choices
you make to get high marks.
You are NOT required to design a complete network. You are required to detail the
specifics covered by the task list shown below.

Wheeler Energy is an organisation that specialises in Sustainable Energy Systems.
Wheeler Energy provide energy solutions across the globe to industries such as Military,
Oil and Gas, Transportation, Correctional, and Physical Data.
Wheeler Energy has a small head office that is in Milton Keynes, England. Founded in
2001, the company has 15 employees that are based in Milton Keynes, and a team of 18
sales and support personnel who work across the world. All installations are managed by
contractors who sit outside of the organisation.
As the company has grown, no strategic plan for IT has been put in place, and employees
generally had their own PCs or laptops that were connected to an office router via Wi-Fi or
some direct UTP cable. Information stored electronically consists of normal business
documentation, together with sales materials (including some product and training videos).
Information has historically been shared using personal Google Docs accounts, and
private information kept on individuals’ PCs. Users have various versions of anti-virus
software installed and administer their own PCs. Users manage their own security
including passwords. Contact with sales staff across the globe, including the Middle East,
Asia and Africa is achieved mostly via email and less often through mobile phone. To
complicate communication matters, one of the Company Directors lives in Spain for most
of the year, and there is no member of staff with IT support responsibility.
After a security audit, the company has realised it needs to take a more systematic and
professional approach to its IT and security infrastructure. The CEO has asked you to
advise her on some specific points of the network. She is keen to make the most of
technology and the following outline requirements have been identified:

Overall System Requirements

  1. To provide a network solution (hardware and software) to meet the needs of the
    company, which would improve the communication, productivity and the security of the
    business and information stored within.
  2. Increase efficiency through reduction of paper-based procedures and allow staff
    working on site to access information at the head office from a tablet PC (Microsoft
    Surface has been selected).
  3. Accommodate company expansion.
  4. Internet access with a faster bandwidth.

Data and information
Company information to be stored centrally in the head office in an electronic format. This
replaces the reliance on Google for all shared storage, and local PCs for individuals’


  1. New computers to meet performance, security and storage requirements (including
  2. New PC workstations / laptops (total 33: 15 x desktop; 18 x Laptop) running Microsoft
  3. New network printer
  4. Network components as required
  5. 33 x Microsoft smartphones


  1. Latest Microsoft Office Suite required
  2. Up-to-date Sage® accountancy software
  3. E-mail server or software with a calendar feature, which can be shared between
  4. Web & email Internet access
  5. Suitable security software

Security requirements

  1. Information security must meet the ISO27001 standard, and the CEO has discovered
    ISO27001, the Government’s ‘Cyber Essentials’ programme and ’10 steps to Cyber
    Security’ guidance from National Cyber Security Centre
  2. GDPR requirements must also be met.
  3. Restrictions are required to be implemented to control access to the confidential client
  4. The system is required to be secure from internal and external threats
  5. An automated daily backup policy and procedure, for all of the information stored within
    the business
  6. Further discussion will be required to establish downtime that is acceptable
    The company has a website, but this is hosted by their ISP and is not part of this
    requirement. The CEO currently favours hosting email in the office but is open to
    persuasive alternatives. The office space consists of a large open plan area with separate
  7. meeting room and manager’s office. The current internet connection consists of a single
  8. ADSL router with WLAN. Some PCs are connected directly to the router with UTP cables.


Wheeler Energy is a global organization. It offers energy solutions across the globe to the several industrial areas. Wheeler Energy was established in 2001 AD. It has small head office located at Milton Keynes, England. This company has 15 employees, 18 sales and support personal. There has employee covered all over the world. Wheeler Energy recently got problem on networking and data security. It also lacks proper staff connection.

Wheeler Energy want us to advice for proper network solution for this company which provides proper network system.

Task 1 – Networking Infrastructure and Protocols

The building has unmanaged loose wires and cable and not controlled Wi-Fi. As per chief requirement here are the queries.

a)   Explain how the network components should be connected. Identify a suitable network topology, data rate and the type of cable (if selected). Your answer must clearly state how your recommendation relates to the business requirements of the Wheeler Energy scenario specifically.

The segments of the system network ought to be associated by overseeing interconnection with equipment and through programming for example switch, switch, remote, firewall, escape, VPN, fix board with gigabyte quicker Ethernet ports overseeing IP addresses, subletting the diverse segments or resources.

The star topologies are most suggested for association by a large portion of the system backing and administrations giving organizations. appropriate system topology star topology would be reasonable system since it is effectively viable and have great information stream control plan. This topology gives the office of simple for interfacing the new hubs, appropriate brought together control and the executive’s framework, disappointment location and investigate is simple, security and information trustworthiness is exceedingly kept up.

Category 6 uses cable type UTP or STP and has maximum data transfer rate of 1000mbps and maximum frequency of 240MHz. Category 7 uses SSTP cable type and can transfer data of 10000mbps and maximum frequency of 600MHz.

Since it is a worldwide association the information stream rate will be clearly high so for the link association feline 7 for the server and feline 6 for the end client gadgets for quicker execution in authoritative workplace. feline 7 for the server in light of the fact that immense measure of information is embedded and taken from it so link with quicker information exchange rate will lessen traffic.

b)   Computer networks use a ‘layered architecture’. Briefly explain what is meant by the term ‘layered architecture and provide TWO (2) advantages and TWO (2) disadvantages of having layered architecture in a network system.

layer engineering is a most straightforward type of system correspondence design. it demonstrates the engineering of a systems network administration activity process by partitioning the system work into more parts which makes it simply get it. it is separated into introduction layer, application layer, space layer and application framework layer. By doing as such it makes a system network framework simple to look after, secure, and adaptability to associate with another system network

  • Advantages of layered architecture:
  • Helps in Making a systems administration framework simple keep up.
  • Layer engineering is straightforward and execute.
  • Helps in charge and exemplify the multifaceted nature of vast application.
  • Helps any groups to chip away at different pieces of the application one next to the other having to less rely upon other group.
  • Disadvantages of layered architecture:
  • The adaptability of system is discovered hard to work in it.
  • Layer engineering expands the unpredictability to the basic applications.

c)   A hub, a switch, a wireless access point and a router are networking components. Identify the OSI layer at which each component operates. For each component, support your answer with ONE (1) reason.

Networking Components are Wireless Access Point, switch, router and a hub. Component operator identifies the OSI layers at which each component operates. Reason are following:

  • Hub:

The physical layer of OSI model in a networking device is called hub. Hub creates traffic in all ports. It is mainly useful in private networks. To all connected device it broadcasts the data packets. Hub doesn’t have mac address. It has no networks identity. Hub can only be used to share data on properly connected devices.

  • Switch:

The data link layer of OSI model in a networking device is called switch.  Switch doesn’t broadcast while sending package but it is possible to broadcast. Switch has network identity also called mac address. It has Mac address directly connected to the ports i.e. host 5 is linked to port f0/5 and host 9 is connected to 0/6.

  • Wireless access point:

Its short form is WAP. WAP is a systems administration gadget of information connect layer. Wireless access point is a gadget that associates a remote nearby system to the wired system. Wireless access point is viewed as Layer 2 bridge that brings 802.3 Ethernet traffic to 802.11 traffic.

  • Router:

Router is a systems administration gadget of System layer of the OSI model. Router associates separate systems through the (IP). This gadget looks at a parcel header’s destination IP address analyzes it against routing table to decide bundle next best route.

d)   Given the applications that will be used, and making any suitable assumptions, identify and briefly explain the purpose of SEVEN (7) OSI protocol layer. For each protocol, identify the layer at which they operate.

As given the application we use, the 7 layers of OSI protocol layer are:

  • Network layer:

IPv4, ipv6, IPS, ICMP, apple talk are a few conventions of network layer. Information are transported as bundles through Logical network routes in an arranged configuration constrained by this layer. This layer gives routing directing ways to arrange correspondence.

  • Session layer:

This layer is in charge of systematically shutting of sessions and furthermore for session registration and recuperation. SAP, L2TP, PPTS, NetBIOS are a few conventions of this layer. this layer builds up, oversees, and ends the connectivity between the end user application forms.

  • Application layer:

DHCP, SMNP, SMTP, Telnet, FTP, HTTP are a few conventions of application layer. In this layer correspondence accomplices are distinguished. Likewise give office of use to trade of information/records, network Software and Email.

  • Physical layer:

This layer connector between a device and transmission medium like optical link and copper link connector cables. Which incorporates voltage, pins, link determination. For example, USB, ATM, RJ-45. Ethernet, Faster Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet are some protocol of this layer.

  • Data interface layer:

This layer center around nearby conveyance of casings among nodes on the comparative dimension of system. It guarantees that all parcels of information are conveyed free of mistakes. Ethernet remote Ethernet, (PPP) point to point over sequential connection, (STP) Spreading over tree convention are a few conventions of information interface layer.

  • Transport layer:

This layer serves to during the time spent transport work and appropriate information conveyance to the goal. TCP, UDP, DCCP, RDP, ATP are a few conventions of Transport layer.

  • Presentation layer:

In this layer the capacity of inscription and decryption are characterized. In this information design is changed over into an organization comprehensible by application layer. MMI, XDR, TLS, SSL are a few conventions of introduction layer.

e)   There are numerous standards of Wi-Fi. Provide a table of the frequency used, maximum data rate and maximum indoor range of the 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac standards.

The numerous standards of WIFI are 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac.

  • 802.11g:

It has 2.4GHz.  A CPU’s clock rate of speed is a proportion of what number of clocks cycles a CPU can give performance every second. E.g.: a CPU with a clock speed rate of 2.4 GHz can perform 2,400,000,000 clocks cycles per second. It was approved in June 2003, 802.11g was the successor to 802.11b. It can achieve up to 54mbps. Its max indoor range is 5181cm. It is introduced OFDM to generate WIFI signal. It also matches the speed of 802.11a but in lower range.

  • 802.11n:

It has 2.4GHz and 5GHz. Double band data could be delivered in two different frequencies. It is first standard to specify MIMO. It has data rate of 300mbps and can reach up to 450mbps. It has 7010cm max indoor range.


It has 5GHz. It uses MIMO and helps in reduce errors and boost speed. Its maximum range indoor is 7010cm and it can transfer data of 433mbps and can reach up to 3.46GBps.

f)     Which Wi-Fi standard(s) do you recommend? Would you recommend the entire LAN be connected wirelessly? Justify your answer.

I would like to suggest 802.11ac Wi-Fi standards. This Wi-Fi standard high information exchange rate and Use MIMO and aides in diminish errors and lift speed organization additionally have more seasoned gadgets. Since the association gives benefits comprehensively to the especially significant ventures and association they must be set up for their costumers when they requirement for that they would require quicker, reliable, secure systems administration framework in their organization.

No, I don’t recommend the whole LAN to be associated remotely. The organization do require secure, speed, reliable and simple and quick viable system framework of network. Many issues can emerge with wireless system there will be high issue of flag associating and disengaging while information is voyaging. There are many network gadgets that could perform better in a system while associated utilizing wire rather than remote. it is smarter to utilize both wire and wireless system association framework as indicated by the need of device thinking about the execution.

Task 2 – Addressing

a)   Explain the terms MAC address and IP address and outline ONE (1) difference between them. Outline how MAC address and IP address also differ from IPv4 and IPv6. You should relate your answer to the OSI model.

Media Access Control Address is the full form of MAC address. MAC address is permanent having physical address and mac address of 48bits.  It is unique machine address given to the system so has no classification helping to identify the device which are participating in a network.

Internet Protocol Address is the full form of IP Address. IP can change in networks & are classified into different classes like A, B, C, D and E. It is logical Address and IP address are 32 bits helping to identify connection to device in network.

IPV4 address size is 32 bits & is a version 4 of IP having Prefix Notation as well as header of 20 bytes and supports the 4.3×10^9 (4.3billion) address. IPV4 is divided in A-E classes & lacks security.

IPV6 address size is 128 bits & is a new version of IP having Prefix Notation 4FFE:E200:0234::/44. It supports the 3.4×1038 address. IPV6 is classless having a strong security than IPV4 and double the header of the IPV4, it has 40bytes.


b)   Explain how a computer gets its MAC and IP addresses. Does it need both? If so, explain why.

Personal Computers get its MAC address from producer’s from where their equipment body parts are made. All the MAC addresses are one of a kind. Furthermore, the IP addresses are relegated by the web access suppliers or system overseer to the systems administration gadgets. IP addresses are for transitory location area for organized gadgets it very well may be changed effectively.

While associating with the system numerous gadgets can have comparative IP addresses so the gadgets interesting location MAC address allots its goal through web conventions foreordains in a system model.

c)   What is ARP and why is it needed?

ARP is layer 2 standing for Address Resolution Protocol & is an element of the IP layer of the TCP/IP convention stack having great importance to decipher a host’s programming address (IP address) to an equipment address (MAC address). … Inside the IP layer there is additionally another convention, called RARP (Reverse ARP) that makes an interpretation of a MAC Address into an IP address.

The portal asks the ARP program to locate a physical host or MAC address that coordinates the IP address when an approaching bundle bound for a host machine on a specific neighborhood lands at an entryway. The ARP program checks the ARP store & during the event that it finds the location, it responds with the goal that the bundle can be changed over to the correct parcel length and configuration and sent back to the machine. During the off chance that no section is found after search for the IP address, ARP communicates a solicitation bundle in a unique organization to every one of the machines on the LAN to check whether one machine identifies that it has that IP address related with it or not.  A machine that perceives the IP address as its very own profits an answer so showing. ARP refreshes the ARP store for future reference and sends the bundle to the MAC address that answered.

d)   Define the terms Default Gateway and Subnet Mask and briefly explain why both are required in this project. You should provide THREE (3) points relating to a subnet mask for full marks.

Default gateway:

The way through which sub netted IP are allowed to travel carrying the data send by the user is known as default gateway. For the purpose of elating the IPS travel through network devices, default gateway is needed in the project. Subnet mask: While defining the range of IP addresses used in a network, subnet mask is used. In local area network it is mostly used. For letting default gateway know that it is from its related network and let it pass through protocols, it is widely used in this project. Sub-netting: This is the method of logically dividing the IP network into smaller network into equal halves each time.

  • It is a connection between network address and IP addresses.
  • It mostly used in local networks.
  • Used in identifying network IP ranges

e)   Briefly explain what is meant by the term sub-netting and how it could be used in this network. Do you recommend sub-netting in this case? Give a reason for your answer clearly showing how it applies to the Wheeler Energy scenario.


This is the method of logically dividing the IP network into smaller network into equal halves each time. It makes easier to grant authorization related to network much easier for different section organization having different IP. For network division and authorization restriction as well as granting processes, sub-netting is mainly used. In an organization there are different faculties in which different tasks are handled. For the purpose of maintaining data integrity and data security sub-netting plays vital role of providing secure data exchange over different network through the authorization maintainability function/setting policies implemented. Hence, I would recommend sub-netting.

f)   Explain what is meant by an IP Routing Table and provide ONE (1) example of how a router uses its routing table on the Internet. You do NOT have to explain every field in the routing table. In your example, explain how a packet gets from source to destination.

IP routing diagram

IP routing table is shown in table design. IP routing table is a set of instruction which is used to determine the data packets are flowing on IP. Router and switches are also IP enabled devices which uses routing table.

IP directing table holds the information required to advance the bundle along the better way to its goal. Every one of the bundles have data about its source and goal. After the bundle is sent device administration gadgets examines the parcel and match its to the steering table passages giving the better match to goal. After that the table gives the gadget information to coordinating the bundles towards the following jumps on it’s course through the system.

Task 3 – Security

a)   Using the ’10 steps to Cyber Security’ referenced above, provide TWO (2) examples with justifications of how the company has weaknesses in access control measures.

  • Managing User Privileges:

According to their authority It can provides limited access to the client connected to their network. This will very verify the information that could be abused by undesirable personals.

  • Malware Presentation:

security from the undesirable malwares which can assist third close to home with accessing the date of the association. This likewise keep from numerous different infections accessible in web that could degenerate framework network information.

b)   Provide a list of FIVE (5) measures that you recommend should be taken to keep the network secure. This should include hardware, software, policies and ways of checking them.

1. Policies:

  • Monitoring:

Systems are found to be used properly as per agreement with organization policies and this is confirmed by regular monitoring.

  • Form:

Employees are the one with whom contract should be made. That means any transfer of data should be restricted without the approval of an organization.

2. Hardware security:

  • Removing media control:

Scanning out the media devices and limiting the connection that is mainly storage devices before connecting with the system.

  • Firewall:

It helps to block unnecessary traffic as per security rule defined and hence having a firewall in a network system is considered to be a wise decision.

3. Software security:

  • Antivirus installation:

Antivirus is the most essential program in a network. It helps to prevent data corruption.

  • Password protection:

To keep the network secure and protected, a strong password is highly recommended.

  • Backup:

To prevent any harm to the first hand data storing server system, the backup system should be maintained.

  • User privileges:

In order to maintain privacy and security, controlling or limiting the data flow and exchange process within the organization should be done.

c)   What do you think is the biggest threat for this system? Justify your answer.

Many threats are there for example; data backup, hacking, poor system management, no access control, staff biasness to data security. And the most threatening issue I have found is the risk of hacking or data theft. No any protection protocol is there for data security. Staffs are found to be using private devices in any network. In such a case many other competing companies would have easy access of the valuable information of their system data which third parties could get in their hand easily. So, things could get better if we install different security devices, protocols and implement good security measure and policies.

Task 4 – Diagram and explanation

a)   Draw a logical network diagram (topology) that shows the main components of the network.

Network Diagram

b)   Allocate suitable IP addresses and add them in the diagram. You should ensure you include the subnet mask and identify the IP addresses that are provided by the ISP.

Wireless EUD192.55.0.1 to 62/26
Lan Wire Network connection192.55.0.64 to
Backup server192.55.0.128 to

In figure 3 network diagram shows the connectivity on the network system. This table shows Device IP and subnet of /26. Subnetting can help to expand network later if necessary.

c)   Explain why you have chosen the hardware components and why you have connected them the way you have in your design for Task 4a.

  1. Switch:

Switch interfaces distinctive systems administration part in wired system framework network.

  • Fire wall:

Firewall gives security to the system framework network.

  • Server:

Wellspring of reinforcement for the information of the association.

  • WAP:

WAP provides wireless network services to many other devices and mobile wireless devices.

  • Router:

Router provides facility to link between two different framework networks.

  • VPN:

VPN gives extra secure information trade administrations for the assurance of the records of association.

d)   Give local prices and specification of suitable hardware/ software you recommend.

  • Switch:

 We require 2 switches. It is used to connect EUD in a network. It may cost around NRS 1500 and total sum will be NRS 3000.

  • Firewall:

We require 3 firewalls. It is used to protect network from threat. It may cost around NRS 4000 and total sum will be NRS 12000.

  • Router:

We need 1 router. It is used for connecting two different networks. It may cost around NRS 4000.

  • Backup Server:

We need 1 backup server. It is used to backup all important data. It may cost around NRS 400000.

  • Cloud Services:

We need unlimited cloud services which is almost impossible.  We can take 5000TB for data handling. It is used to backup all data through internet. It may cost around NRS 140000.

  • WAP:

We need 1 WAP. It provides wireless connectivity to wireless EUD networking devices. It may cost around NRS 4000.

  • VPN:

We need 1 strong VPN. It provides extra security to the data over the internet. It may cost around NRS 4000.

Task 5 – Remote access

a)   Explain how you could incorporate remote access into the system. You should identify the components you would need and state the actions you would complete to get it to work. Do you think Google Docs is a good solution?

Remote access VPN connection is the most common way for providing remote access. With the intention to enable user and office branch with secure access to organizational data VPN technology was developed. An encrypted and safe connection is formed by VPN over a less secure network such as internet. To legitimate VPN traffic to pass unchecked VPN allows routers and firewalls authorization. VPN additionally help by giving burrowing office so information security is keeping up.

VPN provides following advantages:

  • Confidentiality:

Data privacy can be maintained through tunneling.

  • Data-integrity:

The alteration or modification of transferred data is prevented.

  • Control-access:

Controlling of access granted to get into the network and helps to keep unauthorized personal out of the network.

  • Authentication Header:

Provides authentication and integrity prevent data tempering.

b)   How does the remote access requirement regarding mobile devices impact network security?

making a network remotely available methods giving the network access outside the border of the Wheelers Energy. So as to pick up a remote access, the cell phone needs to associate with some other system to gain admittance to organization arrange which probably won’t be extremely protected. Additionally, information burglary action chances will be expanded to have a sheltered remote access arrange framework legitimate system approaches, client approval and access control ought to be executed.


Hereby given above task we can easily convince the organizational network system. We have hence provided network solution, increase efficiency and internet access with a faster bandwidth to Wheeler Energy Organization.

Reference: (2019). AEM Test and Measurement. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Apr. 2019].

address, M. (2019). MAC address. [online] 1&1 Digital guide. Available at: [Accessed 30 Apr. 2019].